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  • JPT Team

Understanding the 5 Main Input Costs for Papermakers

Disclosure: The following article covers various aspects of paper production and input costs, considering a broader scope beyond just coreboard manufacturing.


The papermaking industry is a vital pillar of global manufacturing, providing the foundation for various sectors, from packaging and publishing to stationery and hygiene products. However, like any manufacturing process, papermaking incurs specific input costs that significantly impact the overall production and pricing of paper products. Let's delve into the five main input costs that papermakers encounter and explore their significance in this dynamic industry.


Raw Materials: Wood Pulp and Recycled Fibre

The primary raw material for paper production is wood pulp, obtained from various tree species like softwood (e.g., pine and spruce) and hardwood (e.g., birch and eucalyptus). The cost of wood pulp is influenced by factors such as demand, supply, transportation, and environmental regulations. Fluctuations in wood pulp prices can directly affect paper manufacturers' profitability and influence pricing strategies.


In recent years, the industry's growing emphasis on sustainability and eco-consciousness has led to an increased utilization of recycled fibre in paper production. The cost of recycled fibre is subject to fluctuations in the recycling market, and papermakers need to strike a balance between incorporating recycled content and maintaining product quality. All global coreboard in now made from 100% recycled paper.


Energy Costs: Electricity and Fuel

Energy costs are significant for paper manufacturers as the papermaking process involves several energy-intensive stages, such as pulping, drying, and refining. Electricity and fuel (natural gas, oil, or biomass) are the primary sources of energy used in the production process. As energy prices fluctuate due to market dynamics and geopolitical factors, managing and optimising energy consumption becomes crucial for cost control.


Chemicals and Additives

Chemicals and additives play a vital role in the papermaking process, serving various functions like pulping, bleaching, and sizing. Chemicals such as caustic soda, chlorine dioxide, starch and hydrogen peroxide are used in the pulping and bleaching stages, impacting both cost and environmental considerations. Additives like dyes, pigments, and coatings influence the paper's final appearance and performance. Balancing the need for high-quality products while managing chemical costs is an ongoing challenge for papermakers.


Labour Costs

Labour costs encompass wages, benefits, and training for the workforce involved in the paper manufacturing process. Skilled labour is essential for operating complex machinery and ensuring product quality and efficiency. Labour costs can vary significantly depending on the location of the paper mill, prevailing labour market conditions, and workforce productivity.

Automation and technological advancements have played a role in optimising labour costs and increasing production efficiency. However, maintaining a skilled and motivated workforce remains crucial for achieving consistent quality and productivity levels.


Transportation and Logistics

The final input cost for papermakers involves transportation and logistics. Raw materials need to be transported from sourcing locations to the paper mill, and finished products must reach distribution centres and customers efficiently. Rising fuel prices, transportation distances, and infrastructural challenges can impact transportation costs significantly.

Optimising transportation and logistics can lead to cost savings and reduced environmental impact. Efficient supply chain management is vital for minimising lead times and ensuring a smooth flow of materials and products.




In conclusion, papermakers face several significant input costs that influence their operations and product pricing. Managing raw material expenses, energy consumption, chemical usage, labour costs, and transportation logistics is essential for maintaining competitiveness and sustainability in the ever-evolving papermaking industry. Adaptation to changing market conditions and a focus on environmentally responsible practices are key strategies for success in this dynamic sector.

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